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News Releases
Water and Drought - 08/10/22

From July 8–16, 2022, the Oregon Values and Beliefs Center conducted a statewide survey of Oregonians to explore how they feel about water and drought in Oregon. Results were also compared to responses from a July 2021 OVBC survey[1] in order to examine changes over time. A description of the methodology used for the research is provided below. 

The question numbers in this document correspond with the survey questionnaire (Q25A-G,Q26). Due to rounding, the percentages reported below may not add to 100% or compare exactly to the percentages for the same question in the annotated questionnaire or tabs.     

Oregonians Want a Quicker Response to Drought

A strong majority of Oregonians agree that cities and towns in Oregon need to move quicker to address drought (67%). While still a strong majority, this is actually an 11-point drop from the 78% who said quicker action was needed last year (Q25F).

  • 75% of people with at least a bachelor’s degree want local government to address water and drought more quickly, compared to 65% of those with some college education and 61% of those with a high school diploma or less.
  • Between July of 2021 and July of 2022, the percentage of people living in the Willamette Valley who say quicker action is needed saw a particularly large drop, from 79% in 2021 to 63% in 2022.

Paying for Infrastructure Improvements to Address Drought

Oregonians are almost evenly split between those who are willing to pay more in order to support drought-related infrastructure improvements and those who are not (49% to 40%) (Q25G).

  • About 2-out-of-3 democrats say they’d be willing to pay more (65%), compared to about one-in-three Republicans (35%). Independents fall somewhere in the middle at 42%.
  • Despite drastically different weather kicking off the summer, Oregonians are only slightly less willing to pay more in fees or taxes to pay for water and drought-related improvements, although the decrease did move it out of majority support, from 55% in 2021 to 49% in 2022.

Differing Views on Water Based on Area of Residence

Although nearly half of Oregonians agree there is enough water in Oregon to meet current needs (48%), 37% disagree with this and 15% are unsure (Q25A).

Those who live in the Willamette Valley are more likely than those living in the Tri-County area or the rest of the state to say Oregon has enough water (54% compared to 46-47%).

 

In 2021, 56% of Oregonians believe Oregon had enough water to meet current needs, but in 2022, that number dipped below 50% to 48%. The percentage of Oregonians who do not believe there is enough water in Oregon rose just slightly, from 34% in 2021 to 37% in 2022, but those who said they don’t know rose from 10% to 15%.

Men are more likely than women to believe we have enough water (56% compared to 42%), but men and women are both less confident there’s enough water this year compared to last year (63% to 50%).

Thoughts on Public Agencies’ Drought Management

Oregonians aren’t overly impressed with public agencies’ water supply management during droughts, but more people rate their performance as good (42%) than not (32%). More than a quarter aren’t sure whether or not public agencies are managing water supplies well (26%) (Q25D).

  • Men are more likely than women to say water is being managed well (men: 47%; women: 37%), but not because women say it’s being managed poorly. In fact, women and men say water is not being managed well at exactly the same rate (32%), but nearly the same number of women say they don’t know how well water’s being managed (31% for women; 21% for men).
  • There’s been very little change in Oregonians’ opinions of government water management between 2021 and 2022 with just 4% fewer saying public agencies are managing water supplies effectively during droughts.

Thoughts on the Agricultural Industry’s Conservation Methods

People don’t have a good feel for whether Oregon’s agricultural industry is taking decisive action to conserve water during droughts. 37% of Oregonians agree that decisive action is being taken, but nearly as many say they don’t know (34%), and only slightly fewer disagree (29%) (Q25B).

  • People living outside the Willamette Valley and Tri-County areas, where agriculture is more prevalent, are more likely to say decisive action is being taken to conserve water during drought (42%), especially compared to residents of the Tri-County area (32%; Willamette Valley: 39%).+
  • Oregonians who have not completed a four-year degree are much more likely than their peers with at least a bachelor’s degree to say the agricultural industry is taking decisive action (41%-42% vs. 26%).
  • People’s opinions of agricultural water conservation during drought have remained stable between July 2021 (41%) and July 2022 (37%).

Do We Have Enough Water to Meet Future Needs?

Only 36% of Oregonians think Oregon has enough water to meet future needs, and nearly half (46%) disagree (Q25C). 

People living in the Willamette Valley are more optimistic than those in other areas that we have enough water to meet future needs. 41% of Willamette Valley residents agree we have enough water for the future, while an identical 34% in the Tri-County area and in the rest of the state feel the same way.

Among Oregonians outside the Willamette Valley, nearly half say we do not have enough water for future needs (Tri-County: 48%; Rest of State: 49%).

 

In 2021, Oregonians were much more evenly split between believing Oregon does (42%) or does not (45%) have enough water to meet future needs.

Are Everyday Oregonians Doing Enough to Conserve Water?

Just barely more than a quarter of Oregon residents think the general public is doing enough to conserve water during droughts (28%), and twice as many disagree (56%) (Q25E).

  • Those who live in the Willamette Valley are more confident those who live in the Tri-County area or other areas of the state that Oregonians are conserving water effectively (34% compared to 26%-27%).
  • Republicans (41%) are nearly twice as likely as Democrats (21%) to agree that the general public is conserving water effectively. As is often the case, those who are not registered with one of the two major parties fall somewhere between (28%), but in this instance their level of agreement is more similar to Democrats than Republicans.
  • This is the only statement which more Oregonians agreed with in 2022 than in 2021, although only by one percentage point (27% in 2021; 28% in 2022).

The Voices of Local Oregonians

While many Oregonians feel okay about the current water supply in Oregon, many are worried about the future and think more needs to be done. Other Oregonians are feeling the effects of limited water supplies in their communities. Oregonians are also concerned about water being wasted on things they see as unnecessary (Q26).

“The land and water are overused and under maintained properly. Looking at the prehistory, before Europeans, people did not permanently live in one place. The areas in Eastern and Southern Oregon were place people passed through or were only here for harvesting natural foods. This land and water were not created for long term residency. As we can clearly see by the wells going dry just south of us.” 

Woman, age 55-64, Klamath County, Native American, American Indian, or Alaska Native.

“I live on a well and it gets a bit rough come August, yet another home is being built on our hill with no discussion by the county as to whether the area can handle another home.”

Man, age 65-74, Benton County, white

 

“Our home uses a well for our water and we feel pretty secure that we have lots of water but I know at any time our well could dry up. We are moderately careful with water but I’m certain we could do more to conserve water.”

Woman, age 55-64, Linn County, white

 

“Irrigation districts have a very difficult, controversial task of directing our water resources. There are many factors behind their decisions that stand on precedent, and while some of it is good, I think it’s time to reframe the norm given where our water levels are and are likely to be in coming years. We can’t continue with business as usual, or our rivers won’t be able to recover.”

Non-binary or gender non-conforming and trans, age 18-29, Deschutes County, white

 

“We need to immediately prioritize life-giving uses of water and end the use for cosmetic (e.g. lawn)purposes. We need to incentivize lawn replacements and end HOA/CC&R/nuisance violations for brown lawns. We need to streamline statewide standards for rainfall capture irrigation systems and grey water systems” 

Woman, age 30-44, Curry County, white

 

“The rainfall in Oregon isn’t the only water source, river water that flows from other states into Oregon need to be protected too.”

Man, age 18-29, Josephine County, white

 

“Small farmers are really hurting in my area of Oregon to maintain needed water supplies while a huge amount of water goes to unnecessary places (e.g. golf courses/resorts)” 

Woman, age 30-44, Deschutes County, white

 

“Farmers and ranchers have pushed to have water storage built only to have it taken away or restricted.”

Man, age 55-64, Marion County, white

 

 “I lived in the desert in the Southwest and paid 1/3 as much as here for water and used 3 times as much water. Oregon lunacy at work as always.” 

Woman, age 45-54, Multnomah County, Asian

 

“It would be nice to ensure that the current water supplies are being managed properly taking all needs into consideration. Landowners should have more rights to the water that falls onto or comes from their property as long as they are not abusing it.”

Woman, age 45-54, Jackson County, Black or African American and white

 

“My towns water costs provide little incentive to conserve, plus it’s over priced”

Man, age 45-54, Wasco County, white

 

Demographic Trends

Identifying What Unites Us, Understanding What Divides Us

Reported below are statistically significant subgroup differences between BIPOC and white Oregonians, urban and rural Oregonians, and age groups.  Many of these differences are not major and are presented to inform public education and communications initiatives.  

OVBC surveys currently use aggregated data to analyze the opinions of BIPOC residents in comparison to the opinions of residents who identify as white and not another race. BIPOC residents are not a monolith; the grouping represents a wide diversity of races and ethnicities. The findings included in this memo should not be construed such that all people of color are believed to share the same opinions. Disaggregated race data will be provided when sample sizes permit reliability.

White Oregonians are much more pessimistic than Black, Indigenous and other Oregonians of color when it comes to water management and drought.

  • 60% of BIPOC Oregonians say cities and towns need to act more quickly to address water issues and drought, compared to 70% of white Oregonians (Q25F). 
    • In 2021, percentage difference between BIPOC and white Oregonians who agreed was not statistically significant (BIPOC: 74%; white: 79%), but the 14-point drop among BIPOC Oregonians widened that gap.
    • In 2022, one-in-five BIPOC residents say they don’t know if cities and towns in Oregon need to move quicker to address the drought (20%, compared to 15% white).
  • Similar to their feelings about the need for quicker intervention, there was a larger drop in the percentage of BIPOC Oregonians who say they’d be willing to pay more to fund drought-related infrastructure improvements (Q25G). 
    • 52% of BIPOC residents were willing to pay more in 2021, compared to 44% in 2022. The percentage of white residents who agreed to pay more dropped by half as many percentage points, keeping support for additional funding just barely above 50% and, again, widening the gap in the percentage of BIPOC and white Oregonians who agree with the statement (white residents: 51%).
  • A slim majority of BIPOC residents are confident Oregon has enough water to meet our current needs (53%), but only 46% of white Oregonians agree (Q25A).
    • 29% of BIPOC residents say there is not enough water to meet current needs, compared to 40% of white residents.
  • BIPOC Oregonians are also slightly more likely than their white peers to believe Oregon has enough water to meet future needs, but not by a statistically significant margin (BIPOC: 40%; white: 34%) (Q25C).
    • White Oregonians are, however, significantly more likely to say there is not enough water for future needs (48% compared to 39% of BIPOC).
  • A similar number of BIPOC and white Oregonians agree that Oregon’s public water agencies manager water effectively during droughts (45% and 42%, respectively), but significantly more white Oregonians disagree (34%) than BIPOC Oregonians (27%) (Q25D).
    • A large segment of the population say they’re not sure. In fact, more BIPOC Oregonians say they don’t know (28%) than say public agencies are not managing water effectively (27%).
  • Oregonians are pretty pessimistic about the general public’s efforts at water conservation. Nearly half of BIPOC Oregonians (49%) and nearly six-in-ten white Oregonians (59%) do not think the general public is doing a good job (Q25E).
  • 2021 to 2022 saw a particularly drastic drop in the number of 18-29-year-olds who say cities and towns need to address drought more quickly, with 75% agreeing in 2021 and 56% agreeing in 2022 (Q25F).
  • Around six-in-ten Oregonians aged 65+ are willing to pay more in taxes and fees to address drought (57%-62%) but fewer than half of those under 65 agree (44%-47%) (Q25G).
  • A majority of 18-44-year-olds (52-54%) and those 75 and older (52%) agree that Oregon has enough water for current needs, but fewer than half of 45-74-year-olds agree (39%-48%) (Q25A).
  • Oregonians aged 18-44 are more likely to give water conservation among the general public a positive review (32%-36% compared to 21-28%) (Q25E).
    • More than 60% of Oregonians aged 45 and up disagree, saying the public is not doing a good job (62%-64%), and more than 50% of those aged 30-44 say the same (52%).
  • Uncertainty about water and water management is a persistent theme among all but the oldest age groups.
    • In most cases, 8%-10% more Oregonians in younger age groups are unsure than Oregonians aged 65 and older.
    • While a higher degree of uncertainty is common among 18-29-year-olds, comparatively higher levels of uncertainty about water are found among 30-44-year-olds and even 45-54-year-olds. For example, 18%-19% of those between the ages of 18 and 54 (and even 15% of those aged 55-64) aren’t sure whether there’s enough water in Oregon to meet current needs, while only 7% of those 65 and older aren’t sure (Q25A).
    • Only agricultural efforts to conserve water showed similar levels of uncertainty across age groups (30%-39%) (Q25B).
  • Urban residents are much more likely than rural residents to say cities and towns need to act more quickly to address water issues and drought (74% vs. 61%), and are more willing to help fund drought-related infrastructure improvements (urban: 55%; rural: 40%) (Q25F,Q25G).
    • Rural residents are more likely to say they are not willing to pay more fees or taxes to fund infrastructure improvements (45% vs. 34%) (Q25G).
    • It’s worth noting that rural residents are less likely to be incorporated into cities and towns, and therefore less likely to be served by city government and infrastructure.
  • Last year, more than half the residents of all areas of Oregon agreed there was enough water in Oregon to meet current needs, with the highest percentage among rural Oregonians (58%) and lowest among urbanites (53%). By 2022, however, the percentage from rural areas who agree dropped 10 points to 48%, compared to just a 3-point drop in urban areas (50%).
  • Oregonians from urban areas are more likely than those from rural areas to say public agencies are managing water effectively during drought (urban: 47%; rural: 34%). A plurality of those in rural areas do not think water is being managed effectively (39%; urban: 27%) (Q25D).

 

Methodology: The online survey consisted of 1,572 Oregon residents ages 18+ and took approximately 15 minutes to complete. Respondents were contacted by using professionally maintained online panels. In gathering responses, a variety of quality control measures were employed, including questionnaire pre-testing, validation, and real-time monitoring of responses. To ensure a representative sample, demographic quotas were set, and data weighted by area of the state, gender, age, and education.

Statement of Limitations: Based on a 95% confidence interval, this survey’s margin of error for the full sample ±2.5%. Due to rounding or multiple answer questions, response percentages may not add up to 100%.

The Great Resignation - 08/08/22

From July 8–16, 2022, the Oregon Values and Beliefs Center conducted a statewide survey to determine whether and how the COVID-19 pandemic changed Oregonian’s work lives and ask about the great resignation. The question numbers in this document correspond with the survey questionnaire (Q14–24). 

First Off, How Many People Have Worked Over the Last Two Years?

About two out of every three Oregonians over the age of 18 worked for pay over the last two years (65%) (Q14). 

Men are more likely than women to have worked at some point during the past two years by a small, but statistically significant, margin (68% to 61%). 

Most People Experienced a Job-Related Change in Their Life

The pandemic brought seismic changes for many Oregon workers—but for others, there were no changes at all. A plurality of workers say nothing has changed in the past two years (38%) (Q15). 

Men are more likely than women to say nothing has changed in their workplace as a result of the pandemic (44% compared to 31%). Workers with higher annual incomes have experienced fewer pandemic-related changes than those making less than $50,000 per year (39%-42% compared to 33% of those who make less than $50,000).

Has Covid-19 Created More Remote Work Environments?

Since the beginning of the pandemic, one in five Oregon workers has stopped going to an office every day and has instead become a remote or hybrid worker (20%), but the benefits of working from home were not shared across all groups (Q15).

34% of six-figure workers switched to a home office situation, compared with 13–18% of workers at lower income levels (less than $100K per year).  Those with college degrees were much more likely to have moved work to their homes than those with less formal education (34% compared to 16% of those with just some college and 8% of those with a high school education or less).

Unemployment Benefits

One in four workers with household incomes of $50,000 or less had to go on unemployment at some point between 2020 and today (26%) (Q15). 

The lowest income workers were most likely to have reported filing for unemployment, but between 9–15% of Oregon workers in all other income groups say they filed, too. One in five women (21%) accessed unemployment benefits sometime during the past two years, a bit more than men (15%). 

Do Oregonians Prefer a Remote Work Environment?

Today, workers are a bit more likely to have the option of working remotely, at least sometimes, than they are to report to an office or facility every day (40%, 37%) (Q20). 

Workers who work remotely at least sometimes are split fairly evenly: 22% work exclusively from home and 18% work in a hybrid model. High school graduates and those with some college education are most likely to report to work each day in person (43–44%), while just 24% of college grads do the same. 

Twice as many Oregonians would like the option of working from home or an office than currently have the option of a hybrid work environment (41%, 18%) (Q21, Q20). 

While residents would prefer to work exclusively from home more than coming into work each day (26% to 19%), they are even more likely to prefer a hybrid environment (41%). Half of college graduates want the option of choosing whether to go to an office or stay home (54% compared to 33–37% for other educational levels). 

One in Four Oregonians Joined “The Great Resignation”

One in four Oregon workers joined The Great Resignation by quitting a job (28%) (Q16). 

Some of these Oregon workers decided to become self-employed (12%), became a stay-at-home parent (5%), or chose to retire early (4%) (Q15). 

Self-employment—perhaps via the gig economy—was an especially notable choice for lower-income Oregonians (18% compared to 5-9% for those who make more than $50,000 a year). 

 

The most common reasons for resignation include that Oregonians felt disrespected and underpaid (43%, 41%) (Q17). Workers say disrespect is worse than low pay, and Oregonians are more likely to have quit over it than Americans broadly, per a Pew survey from February 2022[1] (43% to 35%). 

Oregonians are also more likely than other Americans to quit over low pay1 (41%, 37%). 

Oregonians are less likely than the national average to have quit their job due to dissatisfaction with benefits, with 15% saying they quit because benefits like health insurance and paid time off weren’t good, compared to 23% of Americans1.

“Our town hasn’t been able to fill positions for a pharmacist, anesthesiologist, teachers, and domestic violence shelter executive director due to lack of housing (housing turned into tourist rentals).”

Woman, age 30–44, Curry County, white

“Prejudices against people with prior felony convictions prevents so many from finding work, not enough access to affordable childcare, irregular shifts that interfere with family life, lack of transportation.”

Woman, age 65–74, Wallowa County, white

Why Did Some Oregonians Lose Their Job?

Additionally, 21% of workers lost their job during the pandemic (Q18). 

Nearly one-third of workers with a high school education lost a job (30%), double the number of college grads who lost a job (15%). Four times as many low-income residents lost their jobs compared to those who make $100,000 or more a year (31%, 7%). 

Four in ten employees lost their jobs due to a lack of work, or the business folding entirely (43%). Notably, three in ten workers say their job loss stemmed from physical or mental health issues (30%) (Q19). 

Lower-wage workers with household incomes of $50,000 per year or less were among the most likely to say that their employer went out of business (25%, compared to 11–14% for other income groups). 

“It’s being falsely represented that employers are having a hard time finding willing workers. I have applied to a lot of jobs [since] I lost my job, and it was hard to get even one interview when I have plenty of work history. They’re turning away so many applicants without a second look at us.”

Woman, age 18-29, Washington County, Native American/American Indian/Alaska Native and white

Women Favor Working From Home

Nearly half of Oregon residents—working or not—say that the option to work from home would determine whether they accepted a job (44%) (Q22). This is especially true for women (49%), more so than men (38%). There is no difference between different income levels as to whether a work from home option would determine their acceptance. 

“The Great Resignation” is the Product of High Cost of Living

Oregonians say The Great Resignation and the low-wage worker shortage is the product of a high cost of living, not people living off government benefits (60% to 34%) (Q23). 

“If the pay matches the expense of living, more people would be looking for jobs.”

Woman, age 18-29, Multnomah County, Black or African American

“Partly due to high cost of living but also due to family obligations (caretaking), stressful working conditions of many low-wage jobs, and thoughts of entitlement.”

Man, age 65-74, Benton County, Asian

“Benefits and wages aren’t keeping up with inflation and supply chain issues.”

Man, age 30-44, Multnomah County, Asian

“If employers were willing to raise wages to a living level, people would jump at the chance to get those jobs. Since they have a bit of a cushion now, people looking for work can afford to be slightly pickier rather than desperate.”

Woman, age 30-44, Deschutes County, white

“I’m one of them. I wish I knew where these people are getting all this money to live off of. [Maybe] Mitch McConnell can tell me. Our only income is my husband’s $728.00 per month.”

Woman, age 55–64, Marion County, Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

“I believe people have realized they deserve better as well.”

Woman, age 30–44, Coos County, white

“In addition to young people not wanting to work in low wage jobs, I believe quite a few believe that it is beneath their perceived status to work in a minimum wage job.”

Woman, age 65–74, Multnomah County, white

“People want a free ride off the backs of others. Those on fixed income should get stimulus but don’t.”

Woman, age 45–54, Deschutes County, white

Demographic Trends

Identifying what unites us. Understanding what divides us.

Reported below are statistically significant subgroup differences between BIPOC and white Oregonians, urban and rural Oregonians, and age groups.  Many of these differences are not major and are presented to inform public education and communications initiatives.  

  • BIPOC Oregonians are more likely than white residents to have been employed in the past two years (72% to 63%) (Q14). 
    • BIPOC workers were equally likely to experience changes (or not) in their workplace over the last two years. For example, one in five workers in each demographic group shifted to remote or hybrid work (19% and 20%) (Q15).
  • Given the option, BIPOC Oregonians have a stronger preference for an all-at-home work model than white Oregonians (31%, 24%) (Q21). 

These findings mirror those from some companies’ internal workplace surveys[2]. Several publications have addressed the issue as well, investigating the link between discrimination and microaggressions in the workplace and the desire to return in-person. 

  • In rural Oregon, fewer people have worked within the past two years (55%), due in large part to a higher percentage of senior residents in rural areas (Q14). Of those who are still in the workforce, rural residents are less likely to have experienced changes over the past two years.
    • 43% of rural workers say nothing in their job has changed as a result of the pandemic, compared to 28% of urban workers (Q15).
    • Rural workers are about as likely to have quit a job since 2020 as urban and suburban workers (25–31%) (Q16).
  • Rural workers were less likely to shift to working remotely, whether in the same job or in a new one (Q15). 
    • The shift to remote work affected one in four residents in urban areas, but just one in ten in rural parts of Oregon (26% to 10%) (Q15).
    • Urban residents are also more likely than rural residents to have started a new job in order to work remotely, although not by a significant margin (12% urban, 7% rural) (Q15).
    • Nearly one in three urban residents works from home 100% of the time (30%), compared to just 18% of rural workers (Q20).
  • Rural workers are about as likely to have quit a job since 2020 as urban and suburban workers (25–31%) (Q16). 
    • Unlike their suburban and rural-changing-to-suburban counterparts, the most common reason urban and rural residents quit their jobs is low pay (urban: 42%; rural: 38%), followed by the top statewide reason: feeling disrespected as work (urban: 39%; rural: 37%) (Q17).
  • A majority of Oregonians from all types of communities believe that a skyrocketing cost of living is more to blame for a shortage of workers than a glut of government benefits keeping people at home. In rural areas, a scant majority of residents take that view (Q23). 
    • Exactly 50% of Oregonians in rural areas say people simply can’t afford low-wage work these days, a view shared by 72% of urban residents.
  • Workers are, of course, more likely to be people aged 18–64, and labor participation declines steadily with age. For those 18–29, about 83% were employed in the last two years; for those 65–74, 40% were employed. Fewer than one in five seniors over the age of 75 worked for pay in the past two years (19%). 
  • Half of workers under the age of 30 quit a job in the past two years, along with more than one-quarter of workers 30–44 (48%, 29%) (Q16). 
    • Between 0–21% of other age groups quit a job in the past two years, with numbers falling steadily as age groups rise. 
    • Low pay is an especially significant factor for young Oregonians just entering the workforce. For those under 30, more than half quit in favor of more financially sustaining opportunities (53%) (Q17). 
    • Additionally, more than one in four workers under 45 lost a job over the same period (27-28%) (Q18).
  • Oregonians under 30 have strong opinions on the labor shortage. Two-thirds say it is more accurate to blame the high cost of living, including rising rents (66%) (Q23). 
    • While some might believe these young residents are slacking off and simply not working hard enough, it is worth noting this same demographic group quit their jobs in search of higher income (53%) and demonstrate an entrepreneurial spirit by becoming self-employed (16%) (Q17, Q15).  
  • About two out of every three Oregonians over the age of 18 worked for pay over the last two years (65%) (Q14). 
    • Workers are, of course, more likely to be people aged 18–64, and labor participation declines steadily with age. For those 18–29, about 83% were employed in the last two years; for those 65–74, 40% were employed. Fewer than one in five seniors over the age of 75 worked for pay in the past two years (19%). 

Methodology: The online survey consisted of 1,572 Oregon residents ages 18+ and took approximately 15 minutes to complete. Respondents were contacted by using professionally maintained online panels. In gathering responses, a variety of quality control measures were employed, including questionnaire pre-testing, validation, and real-time monitoring of responses. To ensure a representative sample, demographic quotas were set, and data weighted by area of the state, gender, age, and education.

Statement of Limitations: Based on a 95% confidence interval, this survey’s margin of error for the full sample ±2.47%. Due to rounding or multiple answer questions, response percentages may not add up to 100%.

This survey uses aggregated data to analyze the opinions of BIPOC residents in comparison to the opinions of residents who identify as white and not another race. BIPOC residents are not a monolith; the grouping represents a wide diversity of races and ethnicities. The findings included in this memo should not be construed such that all people of color are believed to share the same opinions. Disaggregated race data will be provided when sample sizes permit reliability.